Agreement On The Maintenance Of Peace And Tranquility Upsc

Under the 1993 agreement (on peacekeeping and calm along the effective line of control (LAC) in Indian border areas), “until a definitive solution is found), “both sides must scrupulously respect and respect the LAC between the two parties… No activity by both parties shall exceed the LAC.¬†Convinced that an early settlement of the border issue will promote the fundamental interests of both countries and should therefore be pursued as a strategic objective, you agreed on the following policy parameters and guiding principles for a border settlement: Article I Border differences should not influence the overall development of bilateral relations. Both sides will resolve the border issue through peaceful and friendly consultations. Neither party can use or threaten to use violence against the other party by any means. The final resolution of the border issue will greatly promote good neighbourly and friendly relations between India and China. Article II Both sides should strive, in accordance with the five principles of peaceful coexistence, to achieve a just, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution to the border issue through equal consultations from the political perspective of the whole bilateral relations. Article III Both sides should make judicious and mutually acceptable adaptations of their respective positions on the border issue in a spirit of mutual respect and mutual understanding in order to reach a comprehensive solution to the border issue. The border settlement must be final and cover all areas of the India-China border. Article IV Both parties will take due account of each other`s strategic and reasonable interests and the principle of mutual and equal security. Surprisingly, nowhere in the 1993 agreement is there a provision to recognize the existing lines of intervention of the armies concerned, as they were in 1993. The agreement does not reflect any attempt by each party to recognize the other party`s line at the time of its signing. That would have been the logical starting point. If both armies are to respect the LAC, where is the line? The lack of clarity on the LAC has led to a persistent sense of unease and insecurity, contributing exponentially to military construction in these areas.

The lack of definition of this line always allows for further clandestine progress on the ground. 9. This agreement enters into force on the date of signing and is subject to amendment and complementarity between the two parties. The term “effective line of control” was allegedly used by Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai in a 1959 memo to Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. [2] The delimitation existed as an informal ceasefire line between India and China after the Sino-Indian War of 1962-1993, when their existence was officially accepted as an “effective line of control” in a bilateral agreement. [5] The specification of this Phantom LAC as a starting point and central simpere has rendered virtually unusable several important provisions and articles of the four agreements for more than a quarter of a century. In fact, many of these articles have no influence on the reality on the ground. For example, Article XII of the 1996 Convention states that “this agreement is subject to the ratification reserve and enters into force on the day of the exchange of ratification instruments.” We don`t know if and when it happened. Article V Both parties will take into account, among other things, historical evidence, national sentiments, practical difficulties and reasonable concerns and sensitivities of each other, as well as the actual state of the border areas.